The Essential Parts of Speech - Nouns, Pronouns, Determiners and Verbs

We have looked at Nouns, Verbs and Determiners before. In this Chapter, we introduce Pronouns. With a minimal vocabulary of Nouns, Determiners, Pronouns and Verbs, we will look at examples of sentence structure.

Pronouns

You can use a Pronoun to replace a Noun in Subject or Object Phrases. So instead of saying "Jack went up the hill" you could say "He went up the hill" if it is known that the "he" refers to "Jack."

Pronoun -a word that can function by itself as a noun phrase and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g. I, you) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g. he/she, it, this)   I, you, we, he/she, it, this

We can now add the Pronoun Rule.

Starter Vocabulary - Pronouns, Nouns & Verbs

Pronouns

You will usually be the "Subject" of your conversations. We will use the Pronouns for "I", "you" and "we" in many of the sentences we will form.
EnglishBangla
 I   আমি ami 
 you   তুমি tumi 
 we   আমরা amora 

Sometimes you will see a respectful form of "you" as আপনি (aponi) and a familiar form of "you" as তুই (tui). For now, we will stick with the normal form.

Nouns

EnglishBangla
 home   বাড়ি baRi 
 pictures   ছবি chhobi 
 rice   ভাত bhat 
 sari   শাড়ি shaRi 

Verbs

The next few words are commonly used verbs. Let us take four that are most commonly needed-go, see, eat and give.

In Bangla, the root verbs are slightly modified based on usage in the first(I), second(you) or third (they) person. So, "I go" is slightly different than "you go". You will see the pattern in the 4 verbs we have selected:

Root Verb go » যাওয়া JaOya
  Past Tense Present Tense Future Tense
First Person গিয়েছি
giyechhi
যাচ্ছি
Jachchhi
যাব
Jabo
Second Person গিয়েছিলে
giyechhile
যাচ্ছো
JachchhO
যাবে
Jabe
Third Person গিয়েছে
giyechhe
যাচ্ছে
Jachchhe
যাবে
Jabe

Root Verb see » দেখা dekha
  Past Tense Present Tense Future Tense
First Person দেখেছি
dekhechhi
দেখছি
dekhochhi
দেখব
dekhobo
Second Person দেখেছিলে
dekhechhile
দেখছো
dekhochhO
দেখবে
dekhobe
Third Person দেখেছে
dekhechhe
দেখছে
dekhochhe
দেখবে
dekhobe

Root Verb eat » খাওয়া khaOya
  Past Tense Present Tense Future Tense
First Person খেয়েছি
kheyechhi
খাচ্ছি
khachchhi
খাব
khabo
Second Person খেয়েছিলে
kheyechhile
খাচ্ছো
khachchhO
খাবে
khabe
Third Person খেয়েছে
kheyechhe
খাচ্ছে
khachchhe
খাবে
khabe

Root Verb give » দেওয়া deOya
  Past Tense Present Tense Future Tense
First Person দিয়েছি
diyechhi
দিচ্ছি
dichchhi
দেব
debo
Second Person দিয়েছিলে
diyechhile
দিচ্ছো
dichchhO
দেবে
debe
Third Person দিয়েছে
diyechhe
দিচ্ছে
dichchhe
দেবে
debe

You may notice that all the selected root verbs end in vowel sounds. For these verbs, the first person, future tense all end with the "bo" sound. The second person, future tense all end with the "be" sound. We will look at Verbs in much more detail in Chapter 5.

Making Complete Sentences

Now we can put a complete sentence together from the Rules we have learnt. The Bangla sentences have a Subject, an Object and a Verb. They are in a Subject-Object-Verb sequence. They use Nouns, Pronouns and Verbs as introduced above.

Noun Phrases & Verbs

EnglishBangla
 I want to go home.  আমি বাড়ি যাব।
  ami baRi Jabo. 
 Do you want to go home?  তুমি বাড়ি যাবে?
  tumi baRi Jabe? 
 We want to go home.  আমরা বাড়ি যাব।
  amora baRi Jabo. 
 I want to see pictures.  আমি ছবি দেখব।
  ami chhobi dekhobo. 
 Do you want to see pictures?  তুমি ছবি দেখবে?
  tumi chhobi dekhobe? 
 I want to eat rice.  আমি ভাত খাব।
  ami bhat khabo. 
 Do you want to eat rice?  তুমি ভাত খাবে?
  tumi bhat khabe? 
 I want to give saris.  আমি শাড়ি দেব।
  ami shaRi debo. 
 Do you want to give saris?  তুমি শাড়ি দেবে?
  tumi shaRi debe?