Summary of Grammar Rules for Conversational Bangla

We have covered the major rules describing grammatical syntax of colloquial Bangla. In this Chapter, we will summarize the rules.

The Glossary of Words shows the root and inflected versions of all Verbs in this book.

Here are some examples of the Verb Rules.
Root Verb see » দেখা dekha
  Past Tense Present Tense Future Tense
First Person দেখেছি
dekhechhi
দেখছি
dekhochhi
দেখব
dekhobo
Second Person দেখেছিলে
dekhechhile
দেখছো
dekhochhO
দেখবে
dekhobe
Third Person দেখেছে
dekhechhe
দেখছে
dekhochhe
দেখবে
dekhobe
Root Verb read » পড়া poRa
  Past Tense Present Tense Future Tense
First Person পড়েছি
poRechhi
পড়ছি
poRochhi
পড়ব
poRobo
Second Person পড়েছিলে
poRechhile
পড়ছো
poRochhO
পড়বে
poRobe
Third Person পড়েছে
poRechhe
পড়ছে
poRochhe
পড়বে
poRobe
Root Verb write » লেখা lekha
  Past Tense Present Tense Future Tense
First Person লিখেছি
likhechhi
লিখছি
likhochhi
লিখব
likhobo
Second Person লিখেছিলে
likhechhile
লিখছো
likhochhO
লিখবে
likhobe
Third Person লিখেছে
likhechhe
লিখছে
likhochhe
লিখবে
likhobe

For example, let us add the adverb quickly to the verb walk.

walk quickly

তাড়াতাড়ি হাঁটব

For example, let us add the adjective white and the adjective many to the noun cloud.

many white clouds

অনেক সাদা মেঘ

onek sada megh

For example, let us add the preposition phrase "in the afternoon" to the sentence "I ate rice".

I ate rice in the afternoon

আমি ভাত খেয়েছি + in the afternoon
ami bhat kheyechhi + in the afternoon

আমি ভাত খেয়েছি + দুপুরে
ami bhat kheyechhi + dupure

আমি ভাত দুপুরে খেয়েছি
ami bhat dupure kheyechhi

Example of Conjunction joining two Nouns
mother and father

মা আর বাবা
ma ar baba

Example of Conjunction joining two sentences
I am clever and I am beautiful

আমি চালাক এবং আমি সুন্দর
ami chalak ebong ami sundor

For example, mother's = মা + -র = মার (ma + -r = mar) and father-in-law's = শ্বশুর + -এর = স্বশুরের (shwoshur + -er = shwoshurer)

For example, I want to eat is আমি খাব while I don't want to eat is আমি খাব না.

Applying All The Rules

We will now create a Bangla grammatical sentence using all the rules shown above.
Starting Sentence: The boy is going home.
Add an Adjective: The young boy is going home.
Add an Adverb: The young boy is going home slowly.
Add a Prepositional Phrase: The young boy is going home slowly with the dog.
Add a Conjunction and a Noun Phrase: The young boy and the old man are going home slowly with the dog.

Every Sentence is composed of a Subject Phrase and an Object Phrase. In this sentence, the Subject Phrase would be "The boy". The Verb is "is going" and the Object Phrase is "home". We can now look up the Bangla words in the Glossary. Translations:
boy » ছেলে chhele
The determiner "The" is applied to the noun. This will add a suffix -Ti to the noun.
The boy » ছেলেটি chheleTi
"Is going" is the third person, present tense, of the root verb for "go".
is going » যাচ্ছে Jachchhe
home » বাড়ি baRi
We know that, in Bangla, the Verb comes last in the Verb Phrase. So the Sentence would look like this:
English The boy is going home.
Bangla ছেলেটি বাড়ি যাচ্ছে
chheleTi baRi Jachchhe
Now we want to describe "the boy" by using an Adjective "small". The Adjective will be put before the Noun it describes, hence before "The boy".
small » ছোট chhOTo
English The small boy is going home.
Bangla ছোট ছেলেটি বাড়ি যাচ্ছে
chhOTo chheleTi baRi Jachchhe
We can further describe the verb "is going" by adding an Adverb "slowly". This will be added before the Verb.
slowly » আস্তেআস্তে asteaste
English The small boy is going home slowly.
Bangla ছোট ছেলেটি আস্তেআস্তে বাড়ি যাচ্ছে
chhOTo chheleTi asteaste baRi Jachchhe
We want to give add some information about how "the boy is going home". This can be done with the Prepositional Phrase "with the dog". Remember that the Preposition "with" applies to the Noun Phrase "the dog".
dog » কুকুর kukur
The » -র Suffix -er
The dog » কুকুরের kukurer
with » সাথে sathe
English The small boy is going home slowly with the dog
Bangla ছোট ছেলেটি কুকুরের সাথে ধীরেধীরে বাড়ি যাচ্ছে
chhOTo chheleTi kukurer sathe dhIredhIre baRi Jachchhe
Finally, we want to add some more information to the first Noun Phrase "The boy". Using a Conjunction "and", we can add the Noun Phrase "old man" making "The small boy and the old man".
and » এবং ebong
old » বুড়ো buRO
the man » লোকটি lOkoTi
English The small boy and the old man are going home slowly with the dog
Bangla ছোট ছেলেটি এবং বুড়ো লোকটি কুকুরের সাথে আস্তেআস্তে বাড়ি যাচ্ছে
chhOTo chheleTi ebong buRO lOkoTi kukurer sathe asteaste baRi Jachchhe

This Bangla Sentence follows all the rules we have shown above and is grammatically correct.